Abstract: In the Fall of 1990, the first electronic, collaborative classroom was opened at a total cost of $1.2 million. The AT&T Teaching Theater hosted courses across the disciplines and has served as a model for additional teaching theaters at the University of Maryland exploring the concepts of collaboration and interactivity over its 25-year history and into the future Over its 25 continuous years as a prototype, HyperCourseware has hosted nearly 100 classes in a dozen subjects in one of the Teaching Theaters at Maryland.
Abstract: Immersion has been described as being key to a good gaming experience. As such, most video games strive to achieve a sense of immersion or presence, yet the psychological sense of presence is hard to define and likely to generate lively debate. Recently, psychologists have been attempting to define, measure, and generate the impression of immersion in video games.
Abstract: The Questionnaire for User Interaction Satisfaction has been around for 25 years! This talk chronicles its development and use over these years and outlines future developments.
Abstract: We use common ideas when we talk about online and offline social interactions and communities. But how much do things differ psychologically when they are virtual versus face-to-face? This talk explores these differences and what we can do about them.
Abstract: Acts of violence permeate video games. For a set fo 40 acts of violence, participants indicated whether they thought they were appropriate or inappropriate for ESRB Teen rated games or Mature rated games. In a second study, participants rated how horrifying the act was in context of a video game, a movie, and a news reports. Overall, ratings were lowest for video games and highest for news reports.
Abstract: In the past few years, video games have become more than just a passing form of entertainment for young people. In this presentation, we will look at how the passion for video games and their increasing wealth of examples can be leveraged into an interest and understanding of our academic disciplines. As an example, I offer my new course, "The Psychology of Video Games and Entertainment," in which basic concepts and theories of sensation and perception, learning and memory, thinking and problem solving, and judgment and decision-making are taught in the context of video games. Students are quick to see the relevance of competition, schedules of reinforcement, motivation, and social comparison in video games and are more than willing to spend time researching the ideas in popular games.
Abstract: Most usability professionals have used rating scales at some point in our careers and most of us have seen usability test participants who struggle with product use and then rate the experience as "extremely easy". Some give up on rating scales as a measure of usability. Others realize that only measuring user performance (and not collecting subjective ratings of usability) fails to capture important aspects of the user experience. This panel of experts will explain some of the theory and practice of collecting reliable ratings of usability. Controversies abound in this important topic in our field, and the panelists represent a wide range of perspectives. This panel promises to be both lively and practically enlightening.
Abstract: Landmark digital multimedia scholarship projects have existed since at least the mid- 1990s -note the advent of George Mason University's Center for History and New Media--and the web is ubiquitous in higher education. Yet well over a decade on, the connection between promotion, tenure, or salary increases and digital scholarship is uncertain. In a long-awaited report in late 2006, the Modern Language Association said that we have reached "a threshold moment" in digital scholarship and the promotion and tenure process, but left the challenge of change up to individual departments and institutions. Is there an understanding of what digital scholarship and its many facets entail? Is it the ability to win grants? Is it content provision to a project? Is it information architecture and visual design? Is it writing a software tool or designing a data structure that will underpin a project? Most digital scholarship projects are highly collaborative. Credit for digital scholarship has been defined by the criteria for traditional scholarship, but have criteria for an academic website been developed to the same degree that they have for an academic article?
Abstract: This talk will survey a wide range of topics in psychology that are being changed by the rich and pervasive introduction of of computers and the Internet in our world. Sensory-motor activities today are focused on the human/computer interface (e.g., graphical user interfaces, touch screens, and virtual reality). Cognitive processing, memory, and learning are being facilitated and altered by software agents, personal digital assistants, and search engines. Social computing and networking (e.g. Facebook, MySpace, SecondLife) are creating new interpersonal dynamics in cyberspace. Clinical and counseling psychology are finding new pathologies (e.g., computer addiction, computer phobia) and new avenues for therapeutic intervention on the Web. Cyberpsychology is the new portmanteau that subsumes the overlap of psychology and digital technology.
Abstract: This project is about designing online student collaborative projects about diversity issues in cyberspace. The projects are for two courses (Psyc 443: Thinking and Problem Solving and Psyc 444: Cyberpsychology) taught in electronic classrooms called "Teaching Theaters" at the University of Maryland. First, students will be asked to set up accounts (if they don't already have them) on facebook.com, del.icio.us, wikipedia, youtube.com, and buble.us. During the semester students will be given individual assignments to explore these place pertaining to due with their interests (e.g., working on their profile in facebook, contributing to articles of their interest in wikipedia, and posting and tagging links in del.icio.us). Then they will be asked to generate a spatial map of their "footprint" in cyberspace by generating a chartogram of all of the web sites that they frequently visit. Above the footprint they will place their tagcloud from del.icio.us. Students will explore diversity in cyberspace first using an online tool collaborative "mindmapping." Based on the mindmap, groups will explore diversity dimensions in social computing particularly looking a "virtual communities" and sites such as facebook.com, myspace.com, and youtube.com. As a part of this exploration, students will interact as "members" of some diverse cybercommunities.
Abstract: In this project, I explored the idea of using Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia that anyone can edit, as the method and the medium for student projects. In the spring of 2006, two small classes engaged in Wikipedia contributions. One was an upper level undergraduate course in cognitive psychology entitled "Thinking and Problem Solving" with 22 students. The second class was a graduate level seminar on the psychology of human/computer interaction with 4 students. In the first assignment, all students contributed to existing articles by editing the contents or adding original material. In the class project, five teams wrote full length articles in the undergraduate course and each of the graduate students wrote an article. In addition, students reviewed other articles and we kept tract of the history of changes of all articles. Six months following the end of the semester, students were polled and asked if they had visited their article, made any changes to it, and/or visited and contributed to other articles in Wikipedia. Finally, the change histories of the articles have been monitored to follow interest in the articles and corrections and additions to the articles. The results indicate that students were highly engaged in the projects and some students maintained an interest in their articles and in Wikipedia after the class had ended. While the project was successful, there are problems inherent to Wikipedia, questions about scalability and generalizability, and many other issues and concerns.
Abstract: In the pre-computer era, student papers were graded, filed in cabinets, and rarely saw the light of day again. In more recent times, we have tried to give assignments that would invoke original ideas and research and generate new knowledge. These have often resulted in products worthy of publication. In limited cases, undergraduate papers have been published either in print or more recently hosted on the World Wide Web (WWW). However, this has generally involved a substantial effort on the part of the student and the instructor. In my own courses, student teams have generated projects on the WWW for the past 10 years. Unfortunately, many of these have remained behind course passwords and consequently have not been available to the general public; and even when projects have had some visibility, they were rarely if ever updated or corrected. In the past few years, there has been a rapid development of a new breed of software for Computer Supported Collaboration Work (CSCW). This "groupware" was originally designed to facilitate collaborative efforts in business and industry, but it has clear applications in science and education.
Abstract: Participants were told the relationship between variables A and B and between B and C and then asked to judge the relationship between A and C. The order, the names, and the relationships (increasing, decreasing, and no change) were varied systematically and resulted in 72 judgment problems. Four groups of 15 participants each made judgments for fictitious systems of variables in chemistry, psychology, or economics. An additional chemistry group was allowed the option "don’t know." Although there were no mathematically correct answers, the results showed consistent patterns of inference (transitivity, bi-directionality, and solvability), but no effect due to system. For example, positive relationships between A and B and between B and C resulted in a positive relationship between A and C (transitivity and bi-directionality). A number of other consistent inferences were found for mixed relationships that are being used to formulate a theory of inference for systems of variables.
Abstract: Teaching with technology is great when the technology works; but when it doesn't, anxiety and frustration can be tremendous. This presentation will discuss the results of an online survey on computer frustration and rage looking particularly at the 205 U.S. undergraduate respondents out of a total set of 2100 respondents. Significant levels of rage are reported by the undergraduates. Nearly 80% have cursed their computers, 60% have bent or mutilated a computer disk and intentionally scratched or bent a CD ROM; 37% have popped keys off of keyboards, 20% have slammed a keyboard hard enough to break it; and 18% have kicked a computer hard enough to break it or leave a dent. The presentation will conclude with a few suggestions on how to solve the problem of student computer frustration and rage from the perspective of faculty and administrators teaching with technology.
Abstract: This presentation will discuss the results of an online survey on computer frustration and rage looking particularly at the 1050 U.S. respondents out of a total set of 2100 respondents. Significant levels of rage are reported are reported by the respondents. High levels of frustration are reported as a result of the computer crashing, having to wait for the computer, trying to figure out how to do something, having to redo something, and trying to get help from help systems or help desks. Distributions of responses on a number of the scales are clearly not distributed according to the normal distribution, but show unique patterns of skew, bimodality, and end-anchor effects. Differences were found as a function of gender and age but ratings and incidence of reported behaviors were similar for students and non-students. Issues regarding the sample and resulting biases using an online survey will be discussed.
Abstract: Several theories of computer rage are discussed, and the results of an Internet survey on computer rage are presented. Respondents tended to be frequent users of computers and the WWW and almost equal in numbers of males and females. A number of extreme ratings were given when asked about feelings of frustration and rage against computers. Interesting differences emerged between males and females. A disturbing number of rage behaviors were reported. Finally, the down side and up side of computer rage are discussed along with suggested techniques for safely venting rage on computers.
Abstract: A number of factors in usability testing methods are discussed. We then present a usability study on a Web site. The method used two monitors with the website on one monitor and the task and evaluation questions on a second monitor. Participants were run either individually or in pairs. Overall ratings were significantly lower with pairs.
Abstract: The Laboratory for Automation Psychology and Decision Processes (LAPDP) focuses on the cognitive/psychological aspects of human/computer interaction and does both basic and applied research in this area. It is housed in the Department of Psychology and is affiliated with the Human/Computer Interaction Laboratory (HCIL) in the University of Maryland Institute for Advanced Computer Studies (UMIACS).
Abstract: There are many reasons for using Web-based surveys. However, the design pitfalls are many. Good and bad examples abound on the Web. This presentation summarizes the research in our lab over the past five years supported by the U.S. Census. This research looks at formating and navigation, organization of items, automatic customization, conditional branching, and dealing with edits and corrections.
Abstract: Electronic educational environments include online books and materials, testing and evaluation, tutorials and drills, as well as communications between and among students and teachers. The system involves individual computers, computer networks within electronic classrooms, video-conferencing, and the World Wide Web. Many products and systems have been developed and fielded with mixed results. This talk focuses on the design issues in human/computer interaction that help to ensure productive and useful systems. Principles and guidelines pertain to over arching concepts down to specific features of screen design, navigation, and input devices. Examples of good and bad design will be used to illustrate these points and the development of systems over the past decade.
Abstract: Complex real world decisions often involve a large set of multi-attribute alternatives with varying importance on specific attributes. The decision maker often needs to focus in on a small set of alternatives for further consideration. Dynamic database query provides a method for rapid elimination of alternatives. YMaps is a dynamic query for geographic locations. The first study found that users were able to use the system effectively and that in the process they learned relationships in the database. Our current research is looking at the problem of how do deal with tradeoffs between attributes. The problem is that user interfaces often impose constraints on the decision process. In the case of YMaps, the interface imposes a conjunctive query that eliminates alternatives without compensating for other attributes. One approach to solving this problem is the used of weighted linked sliders.
Abstract: Since 1996 I have required students in 13 different psychology courses at the University of Maryland to complete semester projects on the World Wide Web. The rules were that all of the projects had to be constructed as Web pages and that they would remain accessible on the Web server for future students and educators to view. Some of the projects were by individual students, but most were group projects. Groups were composed using a variety of methods for determining group composition and setting the roles of group members. In general, four roles were defined: collectors, constructors, curators, and commentators. During this presentation I will show a collage of projects including the best and worst; and I will summarize the lessons learned for the future. Among these are how to compose groups using initial interest on aptitude surveys, how to monitor progress using entries in a discussion module and a project space, and how to assess group and individual contributions. Overall, Web-based projects have been extremely rewarding for the students; they receive good evaluations; and they provide an excellent learning experience.
Abstract: Many real-world decisions are made on the basis of looking up information from an online database. New methods of database query affect not only the decision process but also what the decision maker learns about underlying functions among the variables. A dynamic query interface was used to study acquisition of decision-making knowledge using a database of geographic variables. Thirty-six participants queried the visual map of the United States to locate States that met certain criteria (e.g., Variable A > 60, Variable B < 40). Queries were performed dynamically by setting sliders for the variables. The set of states that met the criteria was continuously updated and highlighted. Participants tended to be fairly fast and accurate deciding what States fit the criteria. In addition, participants encoded relationships among the criterion variables by generating a cognitive functional processing system, which allowed them to use one variable to predict another.
Abstract: Conditional branching is used to direct respondents to skip inappropriate questions or to answer follow-up questions. When surveys are implemented on the World Wide Web, branching can be automated in different ways. Three implementations of conditional branching in Web-based surveys were compared: (a) a manual form which replicated the paper-and-pencil version in a scrollable window, (b) a semi-automatic form which also showed the whole survey but auto-scrolled to the next question, and (c) an automatic form that displayed only one item per screen and implemented all branching. The surveys used involved one, two, or three follow-up questions. The automatic item-by-item implementation proved significantly faster than either the manual or the auto-scrolling versions. Respondents found the auto-scrolling to be disorienting. These results suggest that automatic branching should be used but with graceful jumps that guide the respondents’ focus of attention without loosing it.
Abstract: A cognitive functional processing system is proposed which assesses the relationship between any two variables in the environment by taking the partial derivative of an assumed or known response surface for one variable (A) relative to another (B). The response surface is a general concept that can include stochastic and determinist functions whether correlational or causal. The system is used to reason about the composition and decomposition of functions for combining information to make a single judgment. Brunswik's Lens Model, Norman Anderson's, Information Integration Theory, and Kenneth Hammond's Social Judgment Theory are instances of such functions. An experiment in which participants used a dynamic map query system to access information about geographic regions was used to investigate relationships learned and inferred between variables.
Abstract: As we spend more and more significant time interacting with and through machines, we invest and embody more of our selves at the human/computer interface with and through digital artifacts. These artifacts take the form of electronic records and journals of our lives and encode aspects and preferences of the self in terms of digital codes. The transition from the Modern to the Postmodern World witnesses the change in our conceptualization of the self as it has left its imprint on the interface. While the trend has superficially been toward personalization, the real effect has been one of creating disembodied selves with increased bandwidth on the net. This paper argues for a re-evaluation of the person as a mind/body/spirit unit that is inherently incongruent with the digital code. Thus, we are not to be understood through our interaction with information technology merely as symbol processing agents, but rather we are to be understood as objects of God's love.
Abstract: On-line questionnaires, particularly on the World Wide Web, are increasing in popularity for many good reasons. Not surprisingly however, bad user interface designs are appearing along with many good surveys. Unfortunately, these designs are being copied as "models" and "templates" for other surveys resulting in a snowball proliferation of bad survey design with the resulting consequences of non-response and unreliable data. In this talk a number of bad designs of Web-based surveys and questionnaires will be illustrated along with some guiding principles for good design from cognitive psychology and empirical research on human/computer interaction. Research on interface design of Web-based surveys from our lab and others will be presented. These studies include comparisons of item-based (one question per screen) versus form-based (scrolling) presentations; alternative ways of partitioning the survey into sections; the use of navigational tools such as buttons, indexes, and search fields; methods of implementing conditional branching; dealing with respondent errors, edits, and corrections; and the effect of adding hypermedia to enrich and supplement survey items.
Abstract: The research program being conducted by the Human/Computer Interaction Laboratory for the U.S. Census will be presented. Results from two recent studies on the design of on-line surveys using conditional branching and user correction of errors will be discussed. The development of the Dynamaps interface will be discussed as well as recent usability studies. Finally, the design of a planned experiment on knowledge acquisition using Dynamaps will be discussed.
Abstract: Delivery of education on the World Wide Web opens up a number of new pedagogical as well as interface design issues. Should all assignments and readings be posted from the beginning or should they be rolled out in timely manner? Should feedback be immediate or in delayed cycles? A large number of such decisions face the instructor and instructional designer. This presentation will discuss some of the cognitive issues involved that help to answer these questions.
Abstract: Extensive materials have appeared on the World Wide Web (WWW) that lend themselves for use in the electronic classroom and as supplementary materials in many different WWW-based college courses. This presentation discusses the process, problems, and particulars of finding and integrating such materials in an undergraduate statistics course in psychology. Several full-length on-line introductory statistics textbooks exist on the WWW as well as hundreds of Java Applets and Java Script statistical programs for analysis and demonstration. Given the large number of materials on the WWW, how does one go about forming a course using these on-line materials rather than the standard textbook and integrating them into a consistent interface for the students? For the past four years and five times teaching a statistics course in one of the Teaching Theaters on campus using WWW-based materials, I have developed a course that blends the best of three on-line texts and makes use of a number of on-line statistical programs from around the world as well as other materials and programs that I have developed. Consequently, the course materials are in the truest sense hyper-text and hyper-media because they are extensive, expansive, and linked. The challenge has been to integrate the materials into one on-line syllabus and the WWW-sites and pages into one unified interface for the students. Examples of this interface will be shown during the presentation and are available at http://cognitron.umd.edu. Student feedback and lessons learned will also be discussed.
Abstract: The World Wide Web (WWW) provides a rich tool for hosting behavioral research. Cognitive tasks that have been presented on paper and pencil are easily transferred to forms presented in browser windows. Even sophisticated timed tasks can be run by downloading plug-ins to run the experiment locally and then up-load data to the server. This presentation will discuss the pros and cons of using the WWW, present some methods and software, and give a number of illustrations of how the WWW is currently being used present cognitive tasks and collect behavioral data.
Abstract: Previous methods for estimating the weights of attributes in overall judgments have required generating combinatorials sets of attributes in which some information is missing. However, many stimuli are non-decomposable. A method of combinatorial scales (e.g., rate Object X on Factors A and B individually and in combination) is proposed that allows for the mathematical separation of weights from scale values based on an averaging model in information integration. A study is reported in which 54 students rated their liking of eight works of art on five attributes used for assessing the quality of art work. The results suggest a number of problems with the stimulus set (high inter-correlations of single factor ratings) and violations of consistency in averaging which make it difficult to assess unique weights for all subjects. However, the method shows promise and techniques for improving its application are suggested.
Abstract: As a part of on-line testing in Web-based courses, students in six college classes rated their confidence of being correct on multiple choice items on exams taken during the semester for credit. Exams included from 20 to 30 questions. Students received extra credit if the correlation between their confidence rating and whether they were correct was greater than .30. On hard exams, less than 50% received extra credit; on easy exams up to 80% did. For hard exams, overconfidence was observed for easy items and under confidence for difficult items. For easy exams, students seemed to be better calibrated.
Abstract: On-line questionnaires, particularly on the World Wide Web, are increasing in popularity for many good reasons. However, the dynamics of on-line questionnaires in terms of access, navigation, and processing of questions can be quite different from paper-based question answering. This talk will discuss recent results of a study on the process of dual navigation of survey questions in one browser window while searching for answers in an organization's records displayed in a second browser window. Results indicate large differences in navigation patterns and the order in which questions are answered. These results have important implications for the design of on-line questionnaires and methods for linking questions to answers in on-line records.
Abstract: Previous methods for estimating weights of attributes have required generating combinatorials sets of attributes in which some information is missing. However, many stimuli are non-decomposable. A method of combinatorial scales is proposed that theoretically allows for the mathematical separation of weights from scale values based on an averaging model proposed by information integration theory. A study is reported in which students were asked to rate their liking of works of art on five attributes often used for assessing the quality of art work. The results suggest a number of problems with the stimulus set (inter-correlations) and violations of consistency of the ratings which make it difficult to assess unique weights for all subjects. Techniques for improving the method are suggested.
Abstract: Research in judgment and decision making and in management science has focused on measurement, algorithms, processes and procedures. However, the last two decades have experienced an unprecedented growth in the use of human/computer interfaces for (a) the retrieval and acquisition of information, (b) the processing of information and (c) the implementation of decisions, choices, and entire programs. In this talk we will explore the location of emerging interfaces and their implications in decision and management processes.
Abstract: Answering questions on surveys involves the access of internal cognitive knowledge structures, the retrieval of records from external data-bases, and the navigation of items on the computer interface. In this project, we are exploring a number of alternative designs for on-line questionnaire presentation. In the first of a series of studies we have partitioned a long heterogeneous survey in four ways: whole/form-based, semantic/section-based, screen/page-based, and item-based. Questionnaires were presented with or without an index which resulted in eight versions. Times for initial completion and for revisions were recorded as well as subjective assessments. Initial completion times did not differ among the eight versions owing to a linear structure of processing. Revision times reflected ease of finding items in the organization of the survey. Future studies will involve (a) matching knowledge structures of surveys with retrieval of information from external data bases, (b) surveys involving jumps through linear and nonlinear knowledge structures, and (c) matching internal knowledge structures to tabular versus linear and looping knowledge structures.
Abstract: Answering questions on surveys involves the access of internal cognitive knowledge structures, the retrieval of records from external data-bases, and the navigation of items on the computer interface. In this project, we are exploring a number of alternative designs for on-line questionnaire presentation.
Abstract: Everyone is rapidly moving to new technologies in education. Instructors hope to provide enhanced multimedia materials to fulfill new course objectives and facilitate learning. Students hope fulfill degree requirements and gain marketable skills in real life situations. The benefits of electronic educational environments come from two sources: media facilitation and cognitive engagement. Media facilitation pertains to the abilities of new technology to digitally process information and provide easy access to a variety of materials, functions, and communications. Cognitive engagement involves well known principles of learning through concretizing, activity, exploration, imagery, visualization, repetition, and feedback. The application of these principles in the digital environment is powerful new force in education with many technological and pedagogical advantages and will discussed in the first part of the workshop. Along with great potential, the digital media in education also has a number of new design problems that can easily negate the advantages. This workshop will also focus on the issue of navigation and the problem of getting "lost in hyperspace." Web delivered courses are particularly susceptible to navigational problems. Fortunately, research in human/computer interaction has resulted a number of principles that not only help to avoid the problems of traversal but may even use navigational techniques to the learner's advantage in education. Finally, we will deal with the problem of implementation. How do we fulfill course objectives using Web-based tools? Threaded discussions, chat rooms, and other interactive tools have many possibilities and can be used efficiently with the right guidelines. We will look at a number of successful implementations and a couple of failures. In particular, collaborative projects can be very successful using on-line interaction.
Abstract: Many instructors are turning to the WWW to host the materials and interactions for distance education and classroom-bound courses. Desktop hosting is becoming more and more feasible; and emerging software is making it easier and more cost effective than institutionally provided servers. The pros and cons of the central (institutional) versus distributed (personal) approaches involve pragmatics, academic freedom, intellectual property rights, and interface design. It is argued that distributed desktop hosting provides instructors with a greater sense of control over and ownership of the course and a greater flexibility to design their own course at all levels of the interface. HyperCourseware provides a case in point. It will be used to illustrate how one can run one's own server with password protection, use templates for materials, run multi-chat sessions and threaded dialogues, distribute and collect assignments and exams, and even use streaming video for presentations.
Abstract: Many instructors are turning to the WWW to host the materials and interactions for distance education and classroom-bound courses. Desktop hosting is becoming feasible and emerging software is making it easier and more cost effective than institutionally provided servers. The pros and cons of the institutional versus personal approaches involve pragmatics, academic freedom, intellectual property rights, and interface design. It is argued that desktop hosting provides instructors with a greater sense of control over and ownership of the course and a greater flexibility to design their own course at all levels of the interface. A desktop system run entirely from a faculty office using HyperCourseware provides a case study of a successful system used for hosting over half a dozen courses to date. In the midst of this mad rush to the WWW, a number of fundamental, practical, and policy issues arise. The answers to these questions depend not merely on the instructional setting (distance versus local) but also on course ownership (individual versus institutional) and course life cycle (from initial development to repeated offering) and course appeal (from widespread to highly specialized).
Abstract: How do individual faculty maintain control over their own courses and course materials in the new age of instructional technology and the World Wide Web? One solution is to buy in the emerging courseware shells and to rely on institutional services. In this panel I present the counter solution: independence of the faculty from institutional control. The solution is desktop hosting of course materials on the web using computer and network facilities from one's own office.
Abstract: While many instructors are turning to institutional servers for Web-based delivery of courses, desktop hosting of Web-based courses it is becoming more and more feasible. Low cost servers and shareware allow faculty to run courses from their own office computers for under $3,000. Emerging software is making this easier and more cost effective than institutionally provided servers. Desktop hosting provides instructors with a greater sense of control over and ownership of the course. In this seminar participants will learn how to run their own server, use templates for materials, run multi-chat sessions and threaded dialogues, and even streaming video.
Abstract: Over the years of experience in the AT&T Teaching Theater and IBM Teaching Theater we have learned a lot about the use of technology and collaborative activities. These lessons should prove informative in the development and use of the NCR Teaching/Learning Theater in BSOS.
Abstract: New electronic educational environments in electronic classrooms and on the World Wide Web have many technological and pedagogical advantages. They also have a lot of new design pitfalls that can easily negate these advantages. This talk will focus on the issue of navigation and the problem of getting "lost in hyperspace." Web delivered courses will be particularly susceptible to navigational problems. Fortunately, research in human/computer interaction has developed a number of principles that not only help to avoid the problems of traversal but may use navigational techniques to the learner's advantage in education.
Abstract: Cognitive psychology offers a rich literature of research that provides a number of principles for good design of the human/computer interface. These principles which pertain to perception, memory, decision making, and problem solving. Properly applied, they help in the effective layout of text and graphics and in the design of navigational methods that are straight forward.
Abstract: Both instructors and students are rapidly moving to new technologies in education. Instructors hope to provide enhanced multimedia materials to fulfill new course objectives and facilitate learning while students hope fulfill degree requirements and gain marketable skills in real life situations. The benefits of electronic educational environments come from two sources: media facilitation and cognitive engagement. Media facilitation pertains to the abilities of new technology to digitally process information and provide easy access to a variety of materials, functions, and communications. Cognitive engagement involves well known principles of learning through concretizing, activity, exploration, imagery, visualization, repetition, and feedback. The application of these principles in the switched-on environment is powerful new force in education as illustrated by the presenters in this conference.
Abstract: Although we first think of the World Wide Web (WWW) as a course materials delivery system and means of interaction for distance education, it can be used effectively in class when all of the students have computers and Internet access. During the last two years, we have been exploring use of WWW access in several psychology classes taught in electronic classrooms. The most frequent and effective uses have been for information seeking by the students and sharing with the rest of the class, data mining to collect treasures of information, and hosting of collaborative student projects.
Abstract: Automation Psychology is both a new discipline and a new perceptive on psychology as a whole. It is a new discipline in that pertains to the study of behavior in a new emerging context: machines, computers, and technology, in general. It is a new perspective in the sense that all areas of psychology take on a new relevance in technological environments. As an illustration, a theory of cognitive control will be discussed along with its implications on software complexity and interface design using menu selection. Experiments in interface apparency and traversing hierarchical menus will be discussed.